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GACoS is a gateway to search for documents and other academic information over the internet. It can be used to support your research activity. Japanese

 Academic Paper Support Book: Start here 【Web edition】
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(Released: 2014.3.31, Last updated: 2014.3.31)

Your first academic paper

An academic paper is a writing which you explain your argument on a particular topic by giving logical evidences. It is basically is composed of section for the "Title, Author, and Affiliation", an "Abstract", a "Main text", and a "List of reference", and follows a specific format.
Figure 9: Structure of an academic paper
To clearly present your research, a well planned title and expressions in the abstract, and organizedstructure is important.
There are many books published on writing reports and academic papers. Reading some these references at an early stage may be useful.
Also books on how to write report assignments and academic papers are available at the library. Search by the keywords [academic writing] on "The University of Tokyo OPAC".
(See 【Making full use of the library!】)

Also, when you are using information which you have collected in your search, you must clearly differentiate it with your work and indicate your references to avoid plagiarism.
Citation annotations can be inserted in a number of different ways. Citations in the text and reference list must follow the format specified by the academic society or the journal you're submitting.
  • Directly inserting text in a sentence

     The author of XXX says that " ......... "(1).

  • Inserting text between two paragraphs

     The author of XXX explains this point in the following way:

       ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・
       ・・・・・・・・・・・・・・
       ・・・・.(1)


  • Expressing an author's point of view indirectly

      The author of the article considers this issue as [..........](1), an opinion reflected in several other essays.
Annotations usually refer to specific bibliographical information, usually listed at the bottom of the page or the end of the dissertation. Cited works are all to be inclued in the bibliography. Another option is to use only abbreviated bibliographical information in the footnote, such as (Yamada, 2005). The full bibliographical reference is mentioned in the bibliography.
Bibliographical references are meant to give credit to other authors, and to allow the reader to clearly grasp your personal opinion.
Keep the following points in mind when writing bibliographical references:
  • Be precise when using quotes
    Reference materials must be quoted with thorough exactitude, and used according to their author's original intent. Refrain from quoting a material that is itself a quote from another source.

  • Provide exact information about your source
    The exactitude of the author's name, title, and page numbers is essential to allow the reader to go back to the original material.

  • Refer to materials accessible to the reader
    Whenever possible, try to use materials that can be traced and accessed by the reader of your report or dissertation.

Reference:

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