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Thank you for using GACoS for a long time.
GACoS will no longer be updated, so please use Literacy.

GACoS is a gateway to search for documents and other academic information over the Internet. It can be used to support your research activity. Japanese

 Academic Paper Support Book: Start here 【Web edition】
(Released: 2014.3.31, Last updated: 2019.1.24)

Your first academic paper

An academic paper is writing which you explain your argument on a particular topic by giving logical evidence. It is basically composed of a section for the "Title, Author, and Affiliation", an "Abstract", a "Main text", and a "List of reference", and follows a specific format.
Figure 9: Structure of an academic paper
To clearly present your research, a well planned title and expressions in the abstract, and organized structure is important.
There are many books published on writing reports and academic papers. Reading some of the books at an early stage may be useful.
Also, books on how to write report assignments and academic papers are available at the libraries. Search by the keywords [academic writing] on "The University of Tokyo OPAC".
(See 【Making full use of the library!】)

When you use the information which you have collected in your search, you need to avoid plagiarism. You must differentiate other's works from yours clearly, cite and create reference list correctly.
Citations can be inserted in a number of different ways. Citations in the text and reference list must follow the format specified by the academic society or the journal you submit.
  • Short quotations

     The author of XXX says that " ......... "(1).

  • Long quotations

     The author of XXX explains this point in the following way:


  • Paraphrasing/summarizing

      The author of the article considers this issue as .......... (1), an opinion reflected in several other essays.
In-text citations refer the cited materials listed on references at the end of the paper. Numbered citation styles use Arabic numerals e.g. (1), [1]. Author-Date styles use author name and publication year e.g. (Yamada, 2005).
Bibliographical references are meant to give credit to other authors and to allow the reader to follow the argument.
Keep the following points in mind when writing bibliographical references:
  • Be precise when using quotes
    Reference materials must be quoted with thorough exactitude and used according to their author's original intent. Refrain from quoting a material that is itself a quote from another source.

  • Provide exact information about your source
    The exactitude of the author's name, title, and page numbers is essential to allow the reader to go back to the original material.

  • Refer to materials accessible to the reader
    Whenever possible, try to use materials that can be traced and accessed by the reader of your report or dissertation.


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